Phospholipase A2, membrane associated - Q56JZ2 (PA2GA_BOVIN)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

 
Function
Secretory calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 that primarily targets extracellular phospholipids with implications in host antimicrobial defense, inflammatory response and tissue regeneration (By similarity). Hydrolyzes the ester bond of the fatty acyl group attached at sn-2 position of phospholipids (phospholipase A2 activity) with preference for phosphatidylethanolamines and phosphatidylglycerols over phosphatidylcholines (By similarity). Contributes to lipid remodeling of cellular membranes and generation of lipid mediators involved in pathogen clearance. Displays bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria by directly hydrolyzing phospholipids of the bacterial membrane. Upon sterile inflammation, targets membrane phospholipids of extracellular mitochondria released from activated platelets, generating free unsaturated fatty acids such as arachidonate that is used by neighboring leukocytes to synthesize inflammatory eicosanoids such as leukotrienes. Simultaneously, by compromising mitochondrial membrane integrity, promotes the release in circulation of potent damage-associated molecular pattern molecules that activate the innate immune response (By similarity). Plays a stem cell regulator role in the intestinal crypt. Within intracellular compartment mediates Paneth cell differentiation and its stem cell supporting functions by inhibiting Wnt signaling pathway in intestinal stem cell (ICS). Secreted in the intestinal lumen upon inflammation, acts in an autocrine way and promotes prostaglandin E2 synthesis that stimulates Wnt signaling pathway in ICS cells and tissue regeneration (By similarity). May play a role in the biosynthesis of N-acyl ethanolamines that regulate energy metabolism and inflammation. Hydrolyzes N-acyl phosphatidylethanolamines to N-acyl lysophosphatidylethanolamines, which are further cleaved by a lysophospholipase D to release N-acyl ethanolamines. Independent of its catalytic activity, acts as a ligand for integrins. Binds to and activates integrins ITGAV:ITGB3, ITGA4:ITGB1 and ITGA5:ITGB1. Binds to a site (site 2) which is distinct from the classical ligand-binding site (site 1) and induces integrin conformational changes and enhanced ligand binding to site 1. Induces cell proliferation in an integrin-dependent manner (By similarity). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
1-hexadecanoyl-2-4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H2O = 4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z-docosahexaenoate + 1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine + H+ UniProt
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
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Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from the SWISS-MODEL Repository  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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