Protein/nucleic acid deglycase DJ-1 - Q99497 (PARK7_HUMAN)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

 
Function
Multifunctional protein with controversial molecular function which plays an important role in cell protection against oxidative stress and cell death acting as oxidative stress sensor and redox-sensitive chaperone and protease (PubMed:17015834, PubMed:20304780, PubMed:18711745, PubMed:12796482, PubMed:19229105, PubMed:25416785, PubMed:26995087, PubMed:28993701). It is involved in neuroprotective mechanisms like the stabilization of NFE2L2 and PINK1 proteins, male fertility as a positive regulator of androgen signaling pathway as well as cell growth and transformation through, for instance, the modulation of NF-kappa-B signaling pathway (PubMed:12612053, PubMed:15502874, PubMed:14749723, PubMed:17015834, PubMed:21097510, PubMed:18711745). Has been described as a protein and nucleotide deglycase that catalyzes the deglycation of the Maillard adducts formed between amino groups of proteins or nucleotides and reactive carbonyl groups of glyoxals (PubMed:25416785, PubMed:28596309). But this function is rebuted by other works (PubMed:27903648, PubMed:31653696). As a protein deglycase, repairs methylglyoxal- and glyoxal-glycated proteins, and releases repaired proteins and lactate or glycolate, respectively. Deglycates cysteine, arginine and lysine residues in proteins, and thus reactivates these proteins by reversing glycation by glyoxals. Acts on early glycation intermediates (hemithioacetals and aminocarbinols), preventing the formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE) that cause irreversible damage (PubMed:25416785, PubMed:28013050, PubMed:26995087). Also functions as a nucleotide deglycase able to repair glycated guanine in the free nucleotide pool (GTP, GDP, GMP, dGTP) and in DNA and RNA. Is thus involved in a major nucleotide repair system named guanine glycation repair (GG repair), dedicated to reversing methylglyoxal and glyoxal damage via nucleotide sanitization and direct nucleic acid repair (PubMed:28596309). Protects histones from adduction by methylglyoxal, controls the levels of methylglyoxal-derived argininine modifications on chromatin (PubMed:30150385). Able to remove the glycations and restore histone 3, histone glycation disrupts both local and global chromatin architecture by altering histone-DNA interactions as well as histone acetylation and ubiquitination levels (PubMed:30150385, PubMed:30894531). Displays a very low glyoxalase activity that may reflect its deglycase activity (PubMed:22523093, PubMed:31653696, PubMed:28993701). Eliminates hydrogen peroxide and protects cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced cell death (PubMed:16390825). Required for correct mitochondrial morphology and function as well as for autophagy of dysfunctional mitochondria (PubMed:19229105, PubMed:16632486). Plays a role in regulating expression or stability of the mitochondrial uncoupling proteins SLC25A14 and SLC25A27 in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta and attenuates the oxidative stress induced by calcium entry into the neurons via L-type channels during pacemaking (PubMed:18711745). Regulates astrocyte inflammatory responses, may modulate lipid rafts-dependent endocytosis in astrocytes and neuronal cells (PubMed:23847046). In pancreatic islets, involved in the maintenance of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and glucose homeostasis in an age- and diet dependent manner. Protects pancreatic beta cells from cell death induced by inflammatory and cytotoxic setting (By similarity). Binds to a number of mRNAs containing multiple copies of GG or CC motifs and partially inhibits their translation but dissociates following oxidative stress (PubMed:18626009). Metal-binding protein able to bind copper as well as toxic mercury ions, enhances the cell protection mechanism against induced metal toxicity (PubMed:23792957). In macrophages, interacts with the NADPH oxidase subunit NCF1 to direct NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS production, and protects against sepsis (By similarity). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
an N2-1-hydroxy-2-oxoethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA + H2O = a 2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA + glycolate + H+ UniProt
Pathway Maps
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Subunit Structure
Homodimer (PubMed:12851414, PubMed:12796482, PubMed:12855764, PubMed:31653696). Binds EFCAB6/DJBP and PIAS2 (PubMed:11477070, PubMed:12851414, PubMed:12612053). Part of a ternary complex containing PARK7, EFCAB6/DJBP and AR (PubMed:12612053). Interacts (via N-terminus) with OTUD7B (PubMed:21097510). Interacts with BBS1, HIPK1, CLCF1 and MTERF (PubMed:16390825, PubMed:21097510). Forms a complex with PINK1 and PRKN (PubMed:19229105). Interacts (via C-terminus) with NCF1; the interaction is enhanced by LPS and modulates NCF1 phosphorylation and membrane translocation (By similarity). Interacts with NENF (PubMed:31536960). UniProt
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
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  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
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Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from the SWISS-MODEL Repository  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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