Histone-lysine N-methyltransferase SETD2 - Q9BYW2 (SETD2_HUMAN)


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Histone methyltransferase that specifically trimethylates 'Lys-36' of histone H3 (H3K36me3) using dimethylated 'Lys-36' (H3K36me2) as substrate (PubMed:16118227, PubMed:19141475, PubMed:21526191, PubMed:21792193, PubMed:23043551, PubMed:27474439). It is capable of trimethylating unmethylated H3K36 (H3K36me0) in vitro (PubMed:19332550). Represents the main enzyme generating H3K36me3, a specific tag for epigenetic transcriptional activation (By similarity). Plays a role in chromatin structure modulation during elongation by coordinating recruitment of the FACT complex and by interacting with hyperphosphorylated POLR2A (PubMed:23325844). Acts as a key regulator of DNA mismatch repair in G1 and early S phase by generating H3K36me3, a mark required to recruit MSH6 subunit of the MutS alpha complex: early recruitment of the MutS alpha complex to chromatin to be replicated allows a quick identification of mismatch DNA to initiate the mismatch repair reaction (PubMed:23622243). Required for DNA double-strand break repair in response to DNA damage: acts by mediating formation of H3K36me3, promoting recruitment of RAD51 and DNA repair via homologous recombination (HR) (PubMed:24843002). Acts as a tumor suppressor (PubMed:24509477). H3K36me3 also plays an essential role in the maintenance of a heterochromatic state, by recruiting DNA methyltransferase DNMT3A (PubMed:27317772). H3K36me3 is also enhanced in intron-containing genes, suggesting that SETD2 recruitment is enhanced by splicing and that splicing is coupled to recruitment of elongating RNA polymerase (PubMed:21792193). Required during angiogenesis (By similarity). Required for endoderm development by promoting embryonic stem cell differentiation toward endoderm: acts by mediating formation of H3K36me3 in distal promoter regions of FGFR3, leading to regulate transcription initiation of FGFR3 (By similarity). In addition to histones, also mediates methylation of other proteins, such as tubulins and STAT1 (PubMed:27518565, PubMed:28753426). Trimethylates 'Lys-40' of alpha-tubulins such as TUBA1B (alpha-TubK40me3); alpha-TubK40me3 is required for normal mitosis and cytokinesis and may be a specific tag in cytoskeletal remodeling (PubMed:27518565). Involved in interferon-alpha-induced antiviral defense by mediating both monomethylation of STAT1 at 'Lys-525' and catalyzing H3K36me3 on promoters of some interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to activate gene transcription (PubMed:28753426). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
L-lysyl-[protein] + 3 S-adenosyl-L-methionine = 3 H+ + N6,N6,N6-trimethyl-L-lysyl-[protein] + 3 S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine UniProt
Pathway Maps
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Subunit Structure
Specifically interacts with hyperphosphorylated C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II large subunit (POLR2A): binds to CTD heptad repeats doubly phosphorylated on 'Ser-2' and 'Ser-5' of each heptad (PubMed:16118227, PubMed:16314571). Interacts with HTT (PubMed:11461154, PubMed:9700202, PubMed:10958656). Interacts with IWS1 (PubMed:19141475). Interacts with p53/TP53; leading to regulate p53/TP53 target genes (PubMed:18585004). Component of a complex with HNRNPL (PubMed:19332550). Interacts with TUBA1A; the interaction is independent on alpha-tubulin acetylation on 'Lys-40' (PubMed:27518565). Interacts with STAT1 (PubMed:28753426). UniProt
The catalytic SET domain binds histone H3 (PubMed:27474439, PubMed:28256625). It is also able to bind oncogenic histone H3 K36M/I found in a number of cancer types, in which histone H3 'Lys-36' is replaced by a Met or an Ile residue. When binding the oncogenic variant histone H3 K36M/I, the SET domain undergoes dramatic conformational change to accommodate the histone H3 peptide, leading to sequester and inhibit SETD2 activity and block global H3K36 methylation (PubMed:27474439, PubMed:28256625). UniProt
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