Prolyl hydroxylase EGLN3 - Q9H6Z9 (EGLN3_HUMAN)


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Prolyl hydroxylase that mediates hydroxylation of proline residues in target proteins, such as PKM, TELO2, ATF4 and HIF1A (PubMed:19584355, PubMed:21620138, PubMed:21483450, PubMed:22797300, PubMed:20978507, PubMed:21575608). Target proteins are preferentially recognized via a LXXLAP motif. Cellular oxygen sensor that catalyzes, under normoxic conditions, the post-translational formation of 4-hydroxyproline in hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) alpha proteins (PubMed:11595184, PubMed:12181324). Hydroxylates a specific proline found in each of the oxygen-dependent degradation (ODD) domains (N-terminal, NODD, and C-terminal, CODD) of HIF1A (PubMed:11595184, PubMed:12181324). Also hydroxylates HIF2A (PubMed:11595184, PubMed:12181324). Has a preference for the CODD site for both HIF1A and HIF2A (PubMed:11595184, PubMed:12181324). Hydroxylation on the NODD site by EGLN3 appears to require prior hydroxylation on the CODD site (PubMed:11595184, PubMed:12181324). Hydroxylated HIFs are then targeted for proteasomal degradation via the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitination complex (PubMed:11595184, PubMed:12181324). Under hypoxic conditions, the hydroxylation reaction is attenuated allowing HIFs to escape degradation resulting in their translocation to the nucleus, heterodimerization with HIF1B, and increased expression of hypoxy-inducible genes (PubMed:11595184, PubMed:12181324). ELGN3 is the most important isozyme in limiting physiological activation of HIFs (particularly HIF2A) in hypoxia. Also hydroxylates PKM in hypoxia, limiting glycolysis (PubMed:21620138, PubMed:21483450). Under normoxia, hydroxylates and regulates the stability of ADRB2 (PubMed:19584355). Regulator of cardiomyocyte and neuronal apoptosis. In cardiomyocytes, inhibits the anti-apoptotic effect of BCL2 by disrupting the BAX-BCL2 complex (PubMed:20849813). In neurons, has a NGF-induced proapoptotic effect, probably through regulating CASP3 activity (PubMed:16098468). Also essential for hypoxic regulation of neutrophilic inflammation (PubMed:21317538). Plays a crucial role in DNA damage response (DDR) by hydroxylating TELO2, promoting its interaction with ATR which is required for activation of the ATR/CHK1/p53 pathway (PubMed:22797300). Also mediates hydroxylation of ATF4, leading to decreased protein stability of ATF4 (Probable). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
2-oxoglutarate + L-prolyl-[hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunit] + O2 = CO2 + succinate + trans-4-hydroxy-L-prolyl-[hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunit] UniProt
Pathway Maps
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Subunit Structure
Interacts with BCL2 (via its BH4 domain); the interaction disrupts the BAX-BCL4 complex inhibiting the anti-apoptotic activity of BCL2 (PubMed:20849813). Interacts with WDR83; the interaction leads to almost complete elimination of HIF-mediated reporter activity (By similarity). Interacts with ADRB2; the interaction hydroxylates ADRB2 facilitating its ubiquitination by the VHL-E3 ligase complex (PubMed:19584355). Interacts with PAX2; the interaction targets PAX2 for destruction (PubMed:21575608). Interacts with PKM; the interaction hydroxylates PKM in hypoxia (PubMed:21620138, PubMed:21483450). Interacts with LIMD1, WTIP and AJUBA (PubMed:22286099). UniProt
The Beta(2)beta(3) 'finger-like' loop domain is important for substrate (HIFs' CODD/NODD) selectivity. UniProt
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