Glycogen synthase kinase-3 alpha - P49840 (GSK3A_HUMAN)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

 
Function
Constitutively active protein kinase that acts as a negative regulator in the hormonal control of glucose homeostasis, Wnt signaling and regulation of transcription factors and microtubules, by phosphorylating and inactivating glycogen synthase (GYS1 or GYS2), CTNNB1/beta-catenin, APC and AXIN1 (PubMed:11749387, PubMed:17478001, PubMed:19366350). Requires primed phosphorylation of the majority of its substrates (PubMed:11749387, PubMed:17478001, PubMed:19366350). Contributes to insulin regulation of glycogen synthesis by phosphorylating and inhibiting GYS1 activity and hence glycogen synthesis (PubMed:11749387, PubMed:17478001, PubMed:19366350). Regulates glycogen metabolism in liver, but not in muscle (By similarity). May also mediate the development of insulin resistance by regulating activation of transcription factors (PubMed:10868943, PubMed:17478001). In Wnt signaling, regulates the level and transcriptional activity of nuclear CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:17229088). Facilitates amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing and the generation of APP-derived amyloid plaques found in Alzheimer disease (PubMed:12761548). May be involved in the regulation of replication in pancreatic beta-cells (By similarity). Is necessary for the establishment of neuronal polarity and axon outgrowth (By similarity). Through phosphorylation of the anti-apoptotic protein MCL1, may control cell apoptosis in response to growth factors deprivation (By similarity). Acts as a regulator of autophagy by mediating phosphorylation of KAT5/TIP60 under starvation conditions, leading to activate KAT5/TIP60 acetyltransferase activity and promote acetylation of key autophagy regulators, such as ULK1 and RUBCNL/Pacer (PubMed:30704899). Negatively regulates extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathway via death domain receptors. Promotes the formation of an anti-apoptotic complex, made of DDX3X, BRIC2 and GSK3B, at death receptors, including TNFRSF10B. The anti-apoptotic function is most effective with weak apoptotic signals and can be overcome by stronger stimulation (By similarity). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
ATP + L-threonyl-[protein] = ADP + H+ + O-phospho-L-threonyl-[protein] UniProt
Pathway Maps
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Subunit Structure
Monomer. Interacts with ARRB2 (By similarity). Interacts with AXIN1 and CTNNB1/beta-catenin (PubMed:17229088). Interacts with CTNND2 (PubMed:19706605). Interacts with LMBR1L (PubMed:31073040). Interacts with DDX3X (PubMed:18846110). Interacts with TNFRSF10B (PubMed:18846110). UniProt
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Data origin/color codes
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
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Validation Track

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Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from the SWISS-MODEL Repository  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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