Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 - P50750 (CDK9_HUMAN)


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Protein kinase involved in the regulation of transcription (PubMed:10574912, PubMed:10757782, PubMed:11145967, PubMed:11575923, PubMed:11809800, PubMed:11884399, PubMed:14701750, PubMed:16109376, PubMed:16109377, PubMed:20930849, PubMed:28426094). Member of the cyclin-dependent kinase pair (CDK9/cyclin-T) complex, also called positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), which facilitates the transition from abortive to productive elongation by phosphorylating the CTD (C-terminal domain) of the large subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) POLR2A, SUPT5H and RDBP (PubMed:10574912, PubMed:10757782, PubMed:11145967, PubMed:11575923, PubMed:11809800, PubMed:11884399, PubMed:14701750, PubMed:16109376, PubMed:16109377, PubMed:20930849, PubMed:28426094). This complex is inactive when in the 7SK snRNP complex form (PubMed:10574912, PubMed:10757782, PubMed:11145967, PubMed:11575923, PubMed:11809800, PubMed:11884399, PubMed:14701750, PubMed:16109376, PubMed:16109377, PubMed:20930849, PubMed:28426094). Phosphorylates EP300, MYOD1, RPB1/POLR2A and AR and the negative elongation factors DSIF and NELF (PubMed:9857195, PubMed:10912001, PubMed:11112772, PubMed:12037670, PubMed:20081228, PubMed:20980437, PubMed:21127351). Regulates cytokine inducible transcription networks by facilitating promoter recognition of target transcription factors (e.g. TNF-inducible RELA/p65 activation and IL-6-inducible STAT3 signaling) (PubMed:17956865, PubMed:18362169). Promotes RNA synthesis in genetic programs for cell growth, differentiation and viral pathogenesis (PubMed:10393184, PubMed:11112772). P-TEFb is also involved in cotranscriptional histone modification, mRNA processing and mRNA export (PubMed:15564463, PubMed:19575011, PubMed:19844166). Modulates a complex network of chromatin modifications including histone H2B monoubiquitination (H2Bub1), H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and H3K36me3; integrates phosphorylation during transcription with chromatin modifications to control co-transcriptional histone mRNA processing (PubMed:15564463, PubMed:19575011, PubMed:19844166). The CDK9/cyclin-K complex has also a kinase activity towards CTD of RNAP II and can substitute for CDK9/cyclin-T P-TEFb in vitro (PubMed:21127351). Replication stress response protein; the CDK9/cyclin-K complex is required for genome integrity maintenance, by promoting cell cycle recovery from replication arrest and limiting single-stranded DNA amount in response to replication stress, thus reducing the breakdown of stalled replication forks and avoiding DNA damage (PubMed:20493174). In addition, probable function in DNA repair of isoform 2 via interaction with KU70/XRCC6 (PubMed:20493174). Promotes cardiac myocyte enlargement (PubMed:20081228). RPB1/POLR2A phosphorylation on 'Ser-2' in CTD activates transcription (PubMed:21127351). AR phosphorylation modulates AR transcription factor promoter selectivity and cell growth. DSIF and NELF phosphorylation promotes transcription by inhibiting their negative effect (PubMed:9857195, PubMed:10912001, PubMed:11112772). The phosphorylation of MYOD1 enhances its transcriptional activity and thus promotes muscle differentiation (PubMed:12037670). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
[DNA-directed RNA polymerase] + ATP = ADP + H+ + phospho-[DNA-directed RNA polymerase] UniProt
Pathway Maps
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Subunit Structure
(Microbial infection) Interacts with the acidic/proline-rich region of HIV-1 and HIV-2 Tat via T-loop region and is thus required for HIV to hijack host transcription machinery during its replication through cooperative binding to viral TAR RNA (PubMed:10958691, PubMed:9491887). Interacts with herpes simplex virus 1 protein ICP22; this interaction inhibits the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) (PubMed:23029222). UniProt
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