ATP-dependent DNA/RNA helicase DHX36 - Q8VHK9 (DHX36_MOUSE)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

 
Function
Multifunctional ATP-dependent helicase that unwinds G-quadruplex (G4) structures (PubMed:25611385). Plays a role in many biological processes such as genomic integrity, gene expression regulations and as a sensor to initiate antiviral responses (PubMed:21703541, PubMed:21590736). G4 structures correspond to helical structures containing guanine tetrads (By similarity). Binds with high affinity to and unwinds G4 structures that are formed in nucleic acids (G4-ADN and G4-RNA) (By similarity). Plays a role in genomic integrity (By similarity). Converts the G4-RNA structure present in telomerase RNA template component (TREC) into a double-stranded RNA to promote P1 helix formation that acts as a template boundary ensuring accurate reverse transcription (By similarity). Plays a role in transcriptional regulation. Resolves G4-DNA structures in promoters of genes, such as YY1, KIT/c-kit and ALPL and positively regulates their expression (PubMed:25611385) (By similarity). Plays a role in post-transcriptional regulation (By similarity). Unwinds a G4-RNA structure located in the 3'-UTR polyadenylation site of the pre-mRNA TP53 and stimulates TP53 pre-mRNA 3'-end processing in response to ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage (By similarity). Binds to the precursor-microRNA-134 (pre-miR-134) terminal loop and regulates its transport into the synapto-dendritic compartment (By similarity). Involved in the pre-miR-134-dependent inhibition of target gene expression and the control of dendritic spine size (By similarity). Plays a role in the regulation of cytoplasmic mRNA translation and mRNA stability (By similarity). Binds to both G4-RNA structures and alternative non-quadruplex-forming sequence within the 3'-UTR of the PITX1 mRNA regulating negatively PITX1 protein expression (By similarity). Binds to both G4-RNA structure in the 5'-UTR and AU-rich elements (AREs) localized in the 3'-UTR of NKX2-5 mRNA to either stimulate protein translation or induce mRNA decay in an ELAVL1-dependent manner, respectively (By similarity). Binds also to ARE sequences present in several mRNAs mediating exosome-mediated 3'-5' mRNA degradation (By similarity). Involved in cytoplasmic urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) mRNA decay (By similarity). Component of a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex that acts as a cytoplasmic sensor of viral double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and plays a role in the activation of a cascade of antiviral responses including the induction of proinflammatory cytokines via the adapter molecule TICAM1 (PubMed:21703541). Required for the early embryonic development and hematopoiesis (PubMed:22422825). Involved in the regulation of cardioblast differentiation and proliferation during heart development (PubMed:26489465). Involved in spermatogonia differentiation (PubMed:25611385). May play a role in ossification (PubMed:21590736). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
ATP + H2O = ADP + H+ + phosphate UniProt
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Subunit Structure
Found in a multi-helicase-TICAM1 complex at least composed of DHX36, DDX1, DDX21 and TICAM1; this complex exists in resting cells with or without dsRNA poly(I:C) ligand stimulation (PubMed:21703541). Interacts (via C-terminus) with TICAM1 (via TIR domain) (PubMed:21703541). Interacts (via C-terminus) with DDX21; this interaction serves as bridges to TICAM1 (PubMed:21703541). Interacts with TERT; this interaction is dependent on the ability of DHX36 to bind to the G-quadruplex RNA (G4-RNA) structure present in the telomerase RNA template component (TERC). Interacts with DKC1; this interaction is dependent on the ability of DHX36 to bind to the G4-RNA structure present in TERC. Interacts with PARN; this interaction stimulates PARN to enhance uPA mRNA decay. Interacts with EXOSC3; this interaction occurs in a RNase-insensitive manner. Interacts with EXOSC10; this interaction occurs in a RNase-insensitive manner. Interacts with ILF3; this interaction occurs in a RNA-dependent manner. Interacts with ELAVL1; this interaction occurs in an RNA-dependent manner. Interacts with DDX5; this interaction occurs in a RNA-dependent manner. Interacts with DDX17; this interaction occurs in a RNA-dependent manner. Interacts with HDAC1; this interaction occurs in a RNA-dependent manner (By similarity) (PubMed:21590736). Interacts with HDAC3; this interaction occurs in a RNA-dependent manner (By similarity). Interacts with HDAC4 (PubMed:21590736). Interacts with AGO1. Interacts with AGO2 (By similarity). Interacts with ERCC6 (By similarity). UniProt
Domain
The DHX36-specific motif (DSM) form folds into a DNA-binding-induced alpha-helix that together with the oligonucleotide and oligosaccharide-binding-fold-like (OB-fold-like) subdomain bind to Myc-promoter G4-DNA-containing structure in an ATP-dependent manner. Upon G4-DNA-binding, DHX36 pulls on DSM in the 3'-direction, inducing rearrangement of the RecA-like 1 and 2 and the degenerate-winged-helix (WH) regions; these rearrangements are propbably responsible for the ATP-independent repetitive G4-DNA unfolding activity, one residue at a time. Upon resolving of G4-DNA into separate nucleotide strands, and ATP hydrolysis, the apoprotein of DHX36 seems incompatible with G4-DNA-binding (By similarity). The N-terminus is necessary for its recruitment to cytoplasmic stress granules (SGs) upon arsenite-induced treatment (By similarity). UniProt
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
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  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
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Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from the SWISS-MODEL Repository  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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