Sphingosine kinase 2 - Q9NRA0 (SPHK2_HUMAN)

 

Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence  

 
Function
Catalyzes the phosphorylation of sphingosine to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (SPP), a lipid mediator with both intra- and extracellular functions. Also acts on D-erythro-dihydrosphingosine, D-erythro-sphingosine and L-threo-dihydrosphingosine. Binds phosphoinositides (PubMed:19168031, PubMed:12954646). In contrast to prosurvival SPHK1, has a positive effect on intracellular ceramide levels, inhibits cells growth and enhances apoptosis (PubMed:16118219). In mitochondria, is important for cytochrome-c oxidase assembly and mitochondrial respiration. The SPP produced in mitochondria binds PHB2 and modulates the regulation via PHB2 of complex IV assembly and respiration (PubMed:20959514). In nucleus, plays a role in epigenetic regulation of gene expression. Interacts with HDAC1 and HDAC2 and, through SPP production, inhibits their enzymatic activity, preventing the removal of acetyl groups from lysine residues with histones. Upregulates acetylation of histone H3-K9, histone H4-K5 and histone H2B-K12 (PubMed:19729656). In nucleus, may have an inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis and cell cycle (PubMed:12954646, PubMed:16103110). In mast cells, is the main regulator of SPP production which mediates calcium influx, NF-kappa-B activation, cytokine production, such as TNF and IL6, and degranulation of mast cells (By similarity). In dopaminergic neurons, is involved in promoting mitochondrial functions regulating ATP and ROS levels (By similarity). Also involved in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism (By similarity). UniProt
Catalytic Activity
4-hydroxysphinganine + ATP = 4-hydroxysphinganine 1-phosphate + ADP + H+ UniProt
Pathway Maps
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Subunit Structure
Interacts with histone H3 (PubMed:19729656). Interacts with HDAC1, HDAC2, MBD2 and SIN3A (PubMed:19729656). Interacts with EEF1A1; the interaction enhances SPHK2 kinase activity (PubMed:18263879). Interacts with PHB2 (By similarity). UniProt
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Data origin/color codes
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Data in green originates from UniProtKB  
Variation data (sourced from UniProt) shows non-genetic variation from the ExPASy   and dbSNP   websites.
Data in yellow originates from Pfam  , by interacting with the HMMER3 web site  
Data in purple originates from Phosphosite  .
Data in orange originates from the SCOP   (version 1.75) and SCOPe   (version 2.04) classifications.
Data in grey has been calculated using BioJava  . Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN  
  • Red: potentially disorderd region
  • Blue: probably ordered region.
Hydropathy has been calculated using a sliding window of 15 residues and summing up scores from standard hydrophobicity tables.
  • Red: hydrophobic
  • Blue: hydrophilic.
Data in lilac represent the genomic exon structure projected onto the UniProt sequence.
Data in blue originates from PDB
  • Secstruc: Secondary structure projected from representative PDB entries onto the UniProt sequence.
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Validation Track

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Data in red indicates combined ranges of Homology Models from the SWISS-MODEL Repository  
The PDB to UniProt mapping is based on the data provided by the EBI SIFTS project. See also Velankar et al., Nucleic Acids Research 33, D262-265 (2005).
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