Chemical Component Summary

NameTHEOBROMINE
Identifiers3,7-dimethylpurine-2,6-dione
FormulaC7 H8 N4 O2
Molecular Weight180.16
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESCn1cnc2n(C)c(=O)[nH]c(=O)c12
InChIInChI=1S/C7H8N4O2/c1-10-3-8-5-4(10)6(12)9-7(13)11(5)2/h3H,1-2H3,(H,9,12,13)
InChIKeyYAPQBXQYLJRXSA-UHFFFAOYSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count21
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count22
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB01412 Different stereochemistry
NameTheobromine
Groupsapproved
Description3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than theophylline and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)
Synonyms
  • 3,7-dihydro-3,7-Dimethyl-1H-purine-2,6-dione
  • 3,7-Dimethylpurine-2,6-dione
  • 3,7-Dimethylxanthine
  • Theobromin
  • Theobromine
Indicationtheobromine is used as a vasodilator, a diuretic, and heart stimulant. And similar to caffeine, it may be useful in management of fatigue and orthostatic hypotension.
PharmacologyTheobromine, a xanthine derivative like caffeine and the bronchodilator theophylline, is used as a CNS stimulant, mild diuretic, and respiratory stimulant (in neonates with apnea of prematurity).
Mechanism of actionTheobromine stimulates medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers, promoting bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and increased respiratory rate. This action was previously believed to be due primarily to increased intracellular cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) following inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that degrades cyclic AMP. It is now thought that xanthines such as caffeine and theobromine act as antagonist at adenosine-receptors within the plasma membrane of virtually every cell. As adenosine acts as an autocoid, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic sites but augmenting the actions of norepinephrine or angiotensin, antagonism of adenosine receptors promotes neurotransmitter release. This explains the stimulatory effects of xanthine derivatives such as theobromine and caffeine. Blockade of the adenosine A1 receptor in the heart leads to the accelerated, pronounced "pounding" of the heart upon caffeine intake.
Categories
  • Alkaloids
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents
  • Autonomic Agents
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Cardiovascular Agents
ATC-Code
  • R03DA07
  • R03DA57
  • C03BD01
AHFS-Code92:02.00*
CAS number83-67-0
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682