Chemical Component Summary

Identifiers2-acetyloxybenzoic acid
FormulaC9 H8 O4
Molecular Weight180.16
Isomeric SMILESCC(=O)Oc1ccccc1C(O)=O

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count21
Chiral Atom Count0
Chiral Atomsn/a
Bond Count21
Aromatic Bond Count6
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00945 Different stereochemistry
NameAcetylsalicylic acid
  • approved
  • vet_approved
DescriptionThe prototypical analgesic used in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. It has anti-inflammatory and antipyretic properties and acts as an inhibitor of cyclooxygenase which results in the inhibition of the biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid also inhibits platelet aggregation and is used in the prevention of arterial and venous thrombosis. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p5)
  • 2-Acetoxybenzenecarboxylic acid
  • 2-Acetoxybenzoic acid
  • Acetylsalicylate
  • Acetylsalicylsäure
  • acide 2-(acétyloxy)benzoïque
Brand Names
  • 10 Person Ansi
  • 217
  • 217 Strong Tab
  • 222 Tablets
  • 25 Person Ansi
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor use in the temporary relief of various forms of pain, inflammation associated with various conditions (including rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, osteoarthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis), and is also used to reduce the risk of death and/or nonfatal myocardial infarction in patients with a previous infarction or unstable angina pectoris.
PharmacologyAcetylsalicylic acid is an analgesic, antipyretic, antirheumatic, and anti-inflammatory agent. Acetylsalicylic acid's mode of action as an antiinflammatory and antirheumatic agent may be due to inhibition of synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Acetylsalicylic acid appears to produce analgesia by virtue of both a peripheral and CNS effect. Peripherally, acetylsalicylic acid acts by inhibiting the synthesis and release of prostaglandins. Acting centrally, it would appear to produce analgesia at a hypothalamic site in the brain, although the mode of action is not known. Acetylsalicylic acid also acts on the hypothalamus to produce antipyresis; heat dissipation is increased as a result of vasodilation and increased peripheral blood flow. Acetylsalicylic acid's antipyretic activity may also be related to inhibition of synthesis and release of prostaglandins.
Mechanism of actionThe analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory effects of acetylsalicylic acid are due to actions by both the acetyl and the salicylate portions of the intact molecule as well as by the active salicylate metabolite. Acetylsalicylic acid directly and irreversibly inhibits the activity of both types of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) to decrease the formation of precursors of prostaglandins and thromboxanes from arachidonic acid. This makes acetylsalicylic acid different from other NSAIDS (such as diclofenac and ibuprofen) which are reversible inhibitors. Salicylate may competitively inhibit prostaglandin formation. Acetylsalicylic acid's antirheumatic (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory) actions are a result of its analgesic and anti-inflammatory mechanisms; the therapeutic effects are not due to pituitary-adrenal stimulation. The platelet aggregation-inhibiting effect of acetylsalicylic acid specifically involves the compound's ability to act as an acetyl donor to cyclooxygenase; the nonacetylated salicylates have no clinically significant effect on platelet aggregation. Irreversible acetylation renders cyclooxygenase inactive, thereby preventing the formation of the aggregating agent thromboxane A2 in platelets. Since platelets lack the ability to synthesize new proteins, the effects persist for the life of the exposed platelets (7-10 days). Acetylsalicylic acid may also inhibit production of the platelet aggregation inhibitor, prostacyclin (prostaglandin I2), by blood vessel endothelial cells; however, inhibition prostacyclin production is not permanent as endothelial cells can produce more cyclooxygenase to replace the non-functional enzyme.
Route of administration
  • Dental
  • Oral
  • Oral; Topical
  • Rectal
  • Topical
  • Acids, Carbocyclic
  • Analgesics
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal
  • B01AC56
  • C10BX04
  • M01BA03
  • N02BA71
  • C10BX05
  • 28:08.04.24
  • 92:02.00*
CAS number50-78-2
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682