C5E as a free ligand exists in 2 entries. Examples include: 5SYO 4BQT

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Chemical Component Summary

FormulaC11 H14 N2 O
Molecular Weight190.24
Isomeric SMILESO=c1cccc2[C@H]3CNC[C@H](C3)Cn12

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count28
Chiral Atom Count2
Chiral AtomsC6, C8
Bond Count30
Aromatic Bond Count0
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB09028 Different stereochemistry
  • approved
  • investigational
DescriptionCytisine is an alkaloid that is found naturally in several plant genera such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae. Recent studies have shown it to be a more effective and significantly more affordable smoking cessation treatment than nicotine replacement therapy. Also known as baptitoxine or sophorine, cytisine has been used as a smoking cessation treatment since 1964, and is relatively unknown in regions outside of central and Eastern Europe. Cytisine is a partial nicotinic acetylcholine agonist with a half-life of 4.8 hours. Recent Phase III clinical trials using Tabex (a brand of Cytisine marketed by Sopharma AD) have shown similar efficacy to varenicline, but at a fraction of the cost.
  • (1R,5S)-1,2,3,4,5,6-Hexahydro-1,5-methano-8H-pyrido[1,2a][1,5]diazocin-8-one
  • Baptitoxine
  • Sophorine
  • Ulexin
Brand NamesTabex
IndicationIndicated for use in smoking cessation.
PharmacologyVarious models have been run where the affinity of nAChR agonists to the receptor subtype are tested to help identify the molecules, groups and steric conformation that are vital to greater affinity. By using a nAChR muscle receptor subtype (α1)2β1δγ model the following results were obtained: anatoxin > epibatidine > acetylcholine > DMPP >> CYTISINE > pyrantel > nicotine > coniine > tubocurare > lobeline, where anatoxin had the highest activity efficacy and tubocurare the lowest. Acetylcholine on the other hand induced a much longer opening time of the receptor though anatoxin is more potent. The results suggest that anatoxin derivatives would be helpful in understanding structure-activity relationships (SAR) for muscle nAChRs (Cooper et al., 1996).
Mechanism of actionCytisine is a low efficacy partial agonist of ⍺4-β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. These which are believed to be central to the effect of nicotine (NIC) on the reward pathway and facilitate addiction. Cytisine reduces the effects of NIC on dopamine release in the mesolimbic system when given alone, while simultaneously attenuating NIC withdrawal symptoms that accompany cessation attempts.
  • Heterocyclic Compounds
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 1-Ring
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 2-Ring
  • Nicotine, antagonists & inhibitors
CAS number485-35-8
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682