Chemical Component Summary

Identifiers 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
Formula C8 H10 N4 O2
Molecular Weight 194.191  g/mol
Isomeric SMILES Cn1cnc2n(C)c(=O)n(C)c(=O)c12
InChI InChI=1S/C8H10N4O2/c1-10-4-9-6-5(10)7(13)12(3)8(14)11(6)2/h4H,1-3H3

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 24
Chiral Atom Count 0
Chiral Atoms n/a
Bond Count 25
Aromatic Bond Count 10
Leaving Atoms n/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB00201   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Caffeine
Groups approved
Description A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. Caffeine's most notable pharmacological effect is as a central nervous system stimulant, increasing alertness and producing agitation. It also relaxes smooth muscle, stimulates cardiac muscle, stimulates diuresis, and appears to be useful in the treatment of some types of headache. Several cellular actions of caffeine have been observed, but it is not entirely clear how each contributes to its pharmacological profile. Among the most important are inhibition of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases, antagonism of adenosine receptors, and modulation of intracellular calcium handling.
  • 1-methyltheobromine
  • 1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine
  • 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
  • 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
  • 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purin-2,6-dion
  • 1-methyltheobromine
  • 1,3,7-trimethyl-2,6-dioxopurine
  • 1,3,7-trimethylpurine-2,6-dione
  • 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine
  • 3,7-Dihydro-1,3,7-trimethyl-1H-purin-2,6-dion
Brand Names
  • (extra Strength) Acetaminophen, Caffeine & 8mg Codeine Phosphate Caplets
  • 217
  • 217 Strong Tab
  • 222 Tablets
  • 282 Mep Tab
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication For management of fatigue, orthostatic hypotension, and for the short term treatment of apnea of prematurity in infants.
Pharmacology Caffeine, a naturally occurring xanthine derivative like theobromine and the bronchodilator theophylline, is used as a CNS stimulant, mild diuretic, and respiratory stimulant (in neonates with apnea of prematurity). Often combined with analgesics or with ergot alkaloids, caffeine is used to treat migraine and other headache types. Over the counter, caffeine is available to treat drowsiness or mild water-weight gain.
Mechanism of action Caffeine stimulates medullary, vagal, vasomotor, and respiratory centers, promoting bradycardia, vasoconstriction, and increased respiratory rate. This action was previously believed to be due primarily to increased intracellular cyclic 3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP) following inhibition of phosphodiesterase, the enzyme that degrades cyclic AMP. It is now thought that xanthines such as caffeine act as antagonists at adenosine-receptors within the plasma membrane of virtually every cell. As adenosine acts as an autocoid, inhibiting the release of neurotransmitters from presynaptic sites but augmenting the actions of norepinephrine or angiotensin, antagonism of adenosine receptors promotes neurotransmitter release. This explains the stimulatory effects of caffeine. Blockade of the adenosine A1 receptor in the heart leads to the accelerated, pronounced "pounding" of the heart upon caffeine intake.
Route of administration
  • Intramuscular; Intravenous
  • Intravenous
  • Intravenous; Oral
  • Oral
  • Rectal
  • Acids, Acyclic
  • Alkaloids
  • Apnea
  • Caffeine and Caffeine Containing Products
  • Carboxylic Acids
  • V04CG30
  • N06BC01
  • 28:08.92
  • 28:20.00
  • 28:20.92
  • 92:02.00*
CAS number 58-08-2
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682