Chemical Component Summary

Name DEXAMETHASONE
Identifiers (8S,9R,10S,11S,13S,14S,16R,17R)-9-fluoro-11,17-dihydroxy-17-(2-hydroxyethanoyl)-10,13,16-trimethyl-6,7,8,11,12,14,15,16-octahydrocyclopenta[a]phenanthren-3-one
Formula C22 H29 F O5
Molecular Weight 392.461  g/mol
Type NON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILES C[C@@H]1C[C@H]2[C@@H]3CCC4=CC(=O)C=C[C@]4(C)[C@@]3(F)[C@@H](O)C[C@]2(C)[C@@]1(O)C(=O)CO
InChI InChI=1S/C22H29FO5/c1-12-8-16-15-5-4-13-9-14(25)6-7-19(13,2)21(15,23)17(26)10-20(16,3)22(12,28)18(27)11-24/h6-7,9,12,15-17,24,26,28H,4-5,8,10-11H2,1-3H3/t12-,15+,16+,17+,19+,20+,21+,22+/m1/s1
InChIKey UREBDLICKHMUKA-CXSFZGCWSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 57
Chiral Atom Count 8
Chiral Atoms C10 C11 C13 C14 C16 C17 C8 C9
Bond Count 60
Aromatic Bond Count 0
Leaving Atoms n/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB01234   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Dexamethasone
Groups
  • approved
  • investigational
Description An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • 1-Dehydro-16alpha-methyl-9alpha-fluorohydrocortisone
  • 1-Dehydro-16?-methyl-9?-fluorohydrocortisone
  • 16alpha-Methyl-9alpha-fluoro-1-dehydrocortisol
  • 16?-Methyl-9?-fluoro-1-dehydrocortisol
  • 9alpha-Fluoro-16alpha-methylprednisolone
Salts
  • 1-Dehydro-16alpha-methyl-9alpha-fluorohydrocortisone
  • 1-Dehydro-16?-methyl-9?-fluorohydrocortisone
  • 16alpha-Methyl-9alpha-fluoro-1-dehydrocortisol
  • 16?-Methyl-9?-fluoro-1-dehydrocortisol
  • 9alpha-Fluoro-16alpha-methylprednisolone
Brand Names
  • Accufix II Dec Model 033-212
  • Apo-dexamethasone
  • Baycadron
  • Ciprodex
  • Decadron Phosphate Eye Ear Sol 0.1%
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication <B>Injection:</B> for the treatment of endocrine disorders, rheumatic D=disorders, collagen diseases, dermatologic diseases, allergic statesc, ophthalmic diseases, gastrointestinal diseases, respiratory diseases, hematologic disorders, neoplastic diseases, edematous states, cerebral edema. <br><B>Ophthalmic ointment and solution:</B> for the treatment of steroid responsive inflammatory conditions of the palpebral and bulbar conjunctiva, cornea, and anterior segment of the globe. <br><B>Ophthalmic solution only:</B> for the treatment of steroid responsive inflammatory conditions of the external auditory meatus <br><B>Topic cream:</B> for relief of the inflammatory and pruritic manifestations of corticosteroid-responsive dermatoses <br><B>Oral aerosol:</B> for the treatment of bronchial asthma and related corticosteroid responsive bronchospastic states intractable to adequate trial of conventional therapy <br><B>Intranasal aerosol:</B> for the treatment of allergic ot inflammatory nasal conditions, and nasal polyps
Pharmacology Dexamethasone and its derivatives, dexamethasone sodium phosphate and dexamethasone acetate, are synthetic glucocorticoids. Used for its antiinflammatory or immunosuppressive properties and ability to penetrate the CNS, dexamethasone is used alone to manage cerebral edema and with tobramycin to treat corticosteroid-responsive inflammatory ocular conditions.
Mechanism of action Dexamethasone is a glucocorticoid agonist. Unbound dexamethasone crosses cell membranes and binds with high affinity to specific cytoplasmic glucocorticoid receptors. This complex binds to DNA elements (glucocorticoid response elements) which results in a modification of transcription and, hence, protein synthesis in order to achieve inhibition of leukocyte infiltration at the site of inflammation, interference in the function of mediators of inflammatory response, suppression of humoral immune responses, and reduction in edema or scar tissue. The antiinflammatory actions of dexamethasone are thought to involve phospholipase A<sub>2</sub> inhibitory proteins, lipocortins, which control the biosynthesis of potent mediators of inflammation such as prostaglandins and leukotrienes.
Route of administration
  • auricular (otic)
  • intra-articular
  • intra-articular; intralesional; intramuscular; intravenous
  • intra-articular; intralesional; intramuscular; intravenous; soft tissue
  • intra-articular; intralesional; intramuscular; intravenous; soft tissue injection
Categories
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Hormonal
  • Anti-Inflammatory Agents
  • Glucocorticoids
  • Antiemetics
ATC-Code
  • A01AC02
  • C05AA09
  • D07AB19
  • D07XB05
  • D10AA03
AHFS-Code
  • 52:08.08
  • 68:04.00
CAS number 50-02-2
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682