Chemical Component Summary

Name METHOTREXATE
Identifiers (2S)-2-[[4-[(2,4-diaminopteridin-6-yl)methyl-methyl-amino]phenyl]carbonylamino]pentanedioic acid
Formula C20 H22 N8 O5
Molecular Weight 454.439  g/mol
Type NON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILES CN(Cc1cnc2nc(N)nc(N)c2n1)c1ccc(cc1)C(=O)N[C@@H](CCC(O)=O)C(O)=O
InChI InChI=1S/C20H22N8O5/c1-28(9-11-8-23-17-15(24-11)16(21)26-20(22)27-17)12-4-2-10(3-5-12)18(31)25-13(19(32)33)6-7-14(29)30/h2-5,8,13H,6-7,9H2,1H3,(H,25,31)(H,29,30)(H,32,33)(H4,21,22,23,26,27)/t13-/m0/s1
InChIKey FBOZXECLQNJBKD-ZDUSSCGKSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 55
Chiral Atom Count 1
Chiral Atoms CA
Bond Count 57
Aromatic Bond Count 17
Leaving Atoms n/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB00563   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Methotrexate
Groups approved
Description An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of tetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • 4-amino-10-methylfolic acid
  • 4-amino-N(10)-Methylpteroylglutamic acid
  • Amethopterin
  • Emtexate
  • Ledertrexate
Salts
  • 4-amino-10-methylfolic acid
  • 4-amino-N(10)-Methylpteroylglutamic acid
  • Amethopterin
  • Emtexate
  • Ledertrexate
Brand Names
  • Apo-methotrexate
  • Jamp-methotrexate
  • Methotrexate
  • Methotrexate Dbl Inj 10mg/ml
  • Methotrexate Dbl Inj 2.5mg/ml
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication Methotrexate is indicated in the treatment of gestational choriocarcinoma, chorioadenoma destruens and hydatidiform mole. In acute lymphocytic leukemia, methotrexate is indicated in the prophylaxis of meningeal leukemia and is used in maintenance therapy in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents. Methotrexate is also indicated in the treatment of meningeal leukemia. Methotrexate is used alone or in combination with other anticancer agents in the treatment of breast cancer, epidermoid cancers of the head and neck, advanced mycosis fungoides (cutaneous T cell lymphoma), and lung cancer, particularly squamous cell and small cell types. Methotrexate is also used in combination with other chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of advanced stage non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas. Methotrexate is indicated in the symptomatic control of severe, recalcitrant, disabling psoriasis. Methotrexate is indicated in the management of selected adults with severe, active rheumatoid arthritis (ACR criteria), or children with active polyarticular-course juvenile rheumatoid arthritis.
Pharmacology Methotrexate is an antineoplastic anti-metabolite. Anti-metabolites masquerade as purine or pyrimidine - which become the building blocks of DNA. They prevent these substances becoming incorporated in to DNA during the "S" phase (of the cell cycle), stopping normal development and division. Methotrexate inhibits folic acid reductase which is responsible for the conversion of folic acid to tetrahydrofolic acid. At two stages in the biosynthesis of purines and at one stage in the synthesis of pyrimidines, one-carbon transfer reactions occur which require specific coenzymes synthesized in the cell from tetrahydrofolic acid. Tetrahydrofolic acid itself is synthesized in the cell from folic acid with the help of an enzyme, folic acid reductase. Methotrexate looks a lot like folic acid to the enzyme, so it binds to it quite strongly and inhibits the enzyme. Thus, DNA synthesis cannot proceed because the coenzymes needed for one-carbon transfer reactions are not produced from tetrahydrofolic acid because there is no tetrahydrofolic acid. Methotrexate selectively affects the most rapidly dividing cells (neoplastic and psoriatic cells). Methotrexate is also indicated in the management of severe, active, classical, or definite rheumatoid arthritis.
Mechanism of action Methotrexate anti-tumor activity is a result of the inhibition of folic acid reductase, leading to inhibition of DNA synthesis and inhibition of cellular replication. The mechanism involved in its activity against rheumatoid arthritis is not known.
Route of administration
  • intra-arterial; intramuscular; intrathecal; intravenous
  • intra-arterial; intramuscular; intrathecal; intravenous; intraventricular
  • intra-arterial; intramuscular; intravenous
  • intramuscular; intrathecal; intravenous
  • intravenous
Categories
  • Antirheumatic Agents
  • Dermatologic Agents
  • Immunosuppressive Agents
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Folic Acid Antagonists
ATC-Code
  • L01BA01
  • L04AX03
AHFS-Code 10:00.00
CAS number 59-05-2

Drug Targets

Name Sequence Search Pharmacological Action Actions
Dihydrofolate reductase MVGSLNCIVAVSQNMGIGKNGDLPWPPLRNEFRYFQRMTTTSSVEGKQNL... yes inhibitor
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682