Chemical Component Summary

Identifiers hydroxyurea
Formula C H4 N2 O2
Molecular Weight 76.055  g/mol
Isomeric SMILES NC(=O)NO
InChI InChI=1S/CH4N2O2/c2-1(4)3-5/h5H,(H3,2,3,4)

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 9
Chiral Atom Count 0
Chiral Atoms n/a
Bond Count 8
Aromatic Bond Count 0
Leaving Atoms n/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB01005   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Hydroxyurea
Groups approved
Description An antineoplastic agent that inhibits DNA synthesis through the inhibition of ribonucleoside diphosphate reductase. [PubChem]
  • Carbamohydroxamic Acid
  • Carbamohydroximic Acid
  • Carbamoyl Oxime
  • Carbamyl Hydroxamate
  • Hidroxicarbamida
Brand Names
  • Apo-hydroxyurea
  • Droxia
  • Hydrea
  • Hydrea Cap 500mg
  • Hydroxyurea
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication For management of melanoma, resistant chronic myelocytic leukemia, and recurrent, metastatic, or inoperable carcinoma of the ovary and Sickle-cell anemia.
Pharmacology Hydroxyurea has dose-dependent synergistic activity with cisplatin <i>in vitro</i>. <i>In vivo</i> Hydroxyurea showed activity in combination with cisplatin against the LX-1 and CALU-6 human lung xenografts, but minimal activity was seen with the NCI-H460 or NCI-H520 xenografts. Hydroxyurea was synergistic with cisplatin in the Lewis lung murine xenograft. Sequential exposure to Hydroxyurea 4 hours before cisplatin produced the greatest interaction.
Mechanism of action Hydroxyurea is converted to a free radical nitroxide (NO) in vivo, and transported by diffusion into cells where it quenches the tyrosyl free radical at the active site of the M2 protein subunit of ribonucleotide reductase, inactivating the enzyme. The entire replicase complex, including ribonucleotide reductase, is inactivated and DNA synthesis is selectively inhibited, producing cell death in S phase and synchronization of the fraction of cells that survive. Repair of DNA damaged by chemicals or irradiation is also inhibited by hydroxyurea, offering potential synergy between hydroxyurea and radiation or alkylating agents. Hydroxyurea also increases the level of fetal hemoglobin, leading to a reduction in the incidence of vasoocclusive crises in sickle cell anemia. Levels of fetal hemoglobin increase in response to activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) by hydroxyurea-derived NO.
Route of administration oral
  • Antineoplastic Agents
  • Enzyme Inhibitors
  • Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors
  • Antisickling Agents
ATC-Code L01XX05
AHFS-Code 10:00.00
CAS number 127-07-1

Drug Targets

Name Sequence Search Pharmacological Action Actions
Ribonucleoside-diphosphate reductase large subunit MHVIKRDGRQERVMFDKITSRIQKLCYGLNMDFVDPAQITMKVIQGLYSG... yes inhibitor
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682