Chemical Component Summary

NameQuinine
Identifiers(R)-[(1S,2S,4S,5R)-5-ethenyl-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-yl]-(6-methoxyquinolin-4-yl)methanol
FormulaC20 H24 N2 O2
Molecular Weight324.42
TypeNON-POLYMER
Isomeric SMILESCOc1ccc2nccc([C@@H](O)[C@@H]3C[C@@H]4CC[N@]3C[C@@H]4C=C)c2c1
InChIInChI=1S/C20H24N2O2/c1-3-13-12-22-9-7-14(13)10-19(22)20(23)16-6-8-21-18-5-4-15(24-2)11-17(16)18/h3-6,8,11,13-14,19-20,23H,1,7,9-10,12H2,2H3/t13-,14-,19-,20+/m0/s1
InChIKeyLOUPRKONTZGTKE-WZBLMQSHSA-N

Chemical Details

Formal Charge0
Atom Count48
Chiral Atom Count5
Chiral AtomsC10, C11, C13, C17, N1
Bond Count51
Aromatic Bond Count11
Leaving Atomsn/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank IDDB00468 Different stereochemistry
NameQuinine
Groupsapproved
DescriptionAn alkaloid derived from the bark of the cinchona tree. It is used as an antimalarial drug, and is the active ingredient in extracts of the cinchona that have been used for that purpose since before 1633. Quinine is also a mild antipyretic and analgesic and has been used in common cold preparations for that purpose. It was used commonly and as a bitter and flavoring agent, and is still useful for the treatment of babesiosis. Quinine is also useful in some muscular disorders, especially nocturnal leg cramps and myotonia congenita, because of its direct effects on muscle membrane and sodium channels. The mechanisms of its antimalarial effects are not well understood. [PubChem]
Synonyms
  • (-)-Quinine
  • (8S,9R)-Quinine
  • (R)-(-)-Quinine
  • (R)-(6-Methoxyquinolin-4-yl)((2S,4S,8R)-8-vinylquinuclidin-2-yl)methanol
  • 6'-Methoxycinchonidine
Salts
  • Quinine citrate
  • Quinine Hydrochloride
  • Quinine phosphate
  • Quinine sulfate
Brand Names
  • Apo-quinine Capsules
  • Jamp-quinine
  • Pro-quinine - 200
  • Pro-quinine - 300
  • Qualaquin
Affected OrganismHumans and other mammals
IndicationFor the treatment of malaria and leg cramps
PharmacologyQuinine is used parenterally to treat life-threatening infections caused by chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Quinine acts as a blood schizonticide although it also has gametocytocidal activity against P. vivax and P. malariae. Because it is a weak base, it is concentrated in the food vacuoles of P. falciparum. It is thought to act by inhibiting heme polymerase, thereby allowing accumulation of its cytotoxic substrate, heme. As a schizonticidal drug, it is less effective and more toxic than chloroquine. However, it has a special place in the management of severe falciparum malaria in areas with known resistance to chloroquine.
Mechanism of actionThe theorized mechanism of action for quinine and related anti-malarial drugs is that these drugs are toxic to the malaria parasite. Specifically, the drugs interfere with the parasite's ability to break down and digest hemoglobin. Consequently, the parasite starves and/or builds up toxic levels of partially degraded hemoglobin in itself.
Route of administrationOral
Categories
  • Alkaloids
  • Analgesics
  • Analgesics, Non-Narcotic
  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Antimalarials
ATC-Code
  • M09AA72
  • P01BC01
AHFS-Code
  • 08:30.08
  • 92:02.00*
CAS number130-95-0
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID:21059682