Chemical Component Summary

Identifiers 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione
Formula C7 H8 N4 O2
Molecular Weight 180.164  g/mol
Isomeric SMILES Cn1c2nc[nH]c2c(=O)n(C)c1=O
InChI InChI=1S/C7H8N4O2/c1-10-5-4(8-3-9-5)6(12)11(2)7(10)13/h3H,1-2H3,(H,8,9)

Chemical Details

Formal Charge 0
Atom Count 21
Chiral Atom Count 0
Chiral Atoms n/a
Bond Count 22
Aromatic Bond Count 10
Leaving Atoms n/a

Drug Info: DrugBank

DrugBank ID DB00277   (Stereoisomeric match)
Name Theophylline
Groups approved
Description A methylxanthine derivative from tea with diuretic, smooth muscle relaxant, bronchial dilation, cardiac and central nervous system stimulant activities. Mechanistically, theophylline acts as a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, adenosine receptor blocker, and histone deacetylase activator. Theophylline is marketed under several brand names such as Uniphyl and Theochron, and it is indicated mainly for asthma, bronchospasm, and COPD.
  • 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione
  • 1,3-dimethylxanthine
  • Theophyllin
  • Theophylline anhydrous
  • Theophylline, anhydrous
  • 1,3-dimethyl-7H-purine-2,6-dione
  • 1,3-dimethylxanthine
  • Theophyllin
  • Theophylline anhydrous
  • Theophylline, anhydrous
Brand Names
  • Apo-theo ER
  • Apo-theo-LA Srt 100mg
  • Apo-theo-LA Srt 200mg
  • Apo-theo-LA Srt 300mg
  • Elixir De Theophylline
Affected Organism Humans and other mammals
Indication For the treatment of the symptoms and reversible airflow obstruction associated with chronic asthma and other chronic lung diseases, such as emphysema and chronic bronchitis.
Pharmacology Theophylline, an xanthine derivative chemically similar to caffeine and theobromine, is used to treat asthma and bronchospasm. Theophylline has two distinct actions in the airways of patients with reversible (asthmatic) obstruction; smooth muscle relaxation (i.e., bronchodilation) and suppression of the response of the airways to stimuli (i.e., non-bronchodilator prophylactic effects).
Mechanism of action Theophylline relaxes the smooth muscle of the bronchial airways and pulmonary blood vessels and reduces airway responsiveness to histamine, methacholine, adenosine, and allergen. Theophylline competitively inhibits type III and type IV phosphodiesterase (PDE), the enzyme responsible for breaking down cyclic AMP in smooth muscle cells, possibly resulting in bronchodilation. Theophylline also binds to the adenosine A2B receptor and blocks adenosine mediated bronchoconstriction. In inflammatory states, theophylline activates histone deacetylase to prevent transcription of inflammatory genes that require the acetylation of histones for transcription to begin.
Route of administration
  • Intravenous
  • Oral
  • Alkaloids
  • Anti-Asthmatic Agents
  • Autonomic Agents
  • Bronchodilator Agents
  • Cardiovascular Agents
  • R03DA54
  • R03DA74
  • R03DB04
  • R03DA04
AHFS-Code 86:16.00
CAS number 58-55-9
Drug Info/Drug Targets: DrugBank 3.0: a comprehensive resource for 'omics' research on drugs. Knox C, Law V, Jewison T, Liu P, Ly S, Frolkis A, Pon A, Banco K, Mak C, Neveu V, Djoumbou Y, Eisner R, Guo AC, Wishart DS. Nucleic Acids Res. 2011 Jan; 39 (Database issue):D1035-41. | PMID: 21059682