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Some of bacterial ribosome-inactivating toxins evolved to mimic the mechanism employed for loading onto the ribosome by translation factors. The illustration depicts how Shiga toxin 2a (Stx2a) holotoxin (green, PDB ID: 7U6V, EMD-26381) outcompetes the EF-Tu elongation factor (red, PDB ID: 1TTT) complexed with Phe-tRNAPhe (orange) for binding to the ribosomal P-stalk (red) at the large subunit of the 80S ribosome (purple, EMD-26380). Kulczyk et al. determined a cryo-EM structure of Stx2a bound to the native ribosomal P-stalk. The illustration was created by Maria Voigt (RCSB PDB) with materials provided by Arek Kulczyk (Rutgers University, Institute for Quantitative Biomedicine).