3GN8

X-ray Crystal Structure of AncGR2 in Complex with Dexamethasone


Experimental Data Snapshot

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.255 
  • R-Value Work: 0.196 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.199 

wwPDB Validation 3D Report Full Report


This is version 1.1 of the entry. See complete history


Literature

An epistatic ratchet constrains the direction of glucocorticoid receptor evolution

Bridgham, J.T.Ortlund, E.A.Thornton, J.W.

(2009) Nature 461: 515-519

  • DOI: 10.1038/nature08249
  • Structures With Same Primary Citation

  • PubMed Abstract: 
  • The extent to which evolution is reversible has long fascinated biologists. Most previous work on the reversibility of morphological and life-history evolution has been indecisive, because of uncertainty and bias in the methods used to infer ancestra ...

    The extent to which evolution is reversible has long fascinated biologists. Most previous work on the reversibility of morphological and life-history evolution has been indecisive, because of uncertainty and bias in the methods used to infer ancestral states for such characters. Further, despite theoretical work on the factors that could contribute to irreversibility, there is little empirical evidence on its causes, because sufficient understanding of the mechanistic basis for the evolution of new or ancestral phenotypes is seldom available. By studying the reversibility of evolutionary changes in protein structure and function, these limitations can be overcome. Here we show, using the evolution of hormone specificity in the vertebrate glucocorticoid receptor as a case-study, that the evolutionary path by which this protein acquired its new function soon became inaccessible to reverse exploration. Using ancestral gene reconstruction, protein engineering and X-ray crystallography, we demonstrate that five subsequent 'restrictive' mutations, which optimized the new specificity of the glucocorticoid receptor, also destabilized elements of the protein structure that were required to support the ancestral conformation. Unless these ratchet-like epistatic substitutions are restored to their ancestral states, reversing the key function-switching mutations yields a non-functional protein. Reversing the restrictive substitutions first, however, does nothing to enhance the ancestral function. Our findings indicate that even if selection for the ancestral function were imposed, direct reversal would be extremely unlikely, suggesting an important role for historical contingency in protein evolution.


    Organizational Affiliation

    Center for Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Oregon, Eugene, Oregon 97403, USA.



Macromolecules

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 2
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Nuclear receptor coactivator 2
C, E
21N/AMutation(s): 0 
Find proteins for Q15596 (Homo sapiens)
Go to UniProtKB:  Q15596
NIH Common Fund Data Resources
PHAROS  Q15596
Protein Feature View
  • Reference Sequence

Find similar proteins by: Sequence  |  Structure

Entity ID: 1
MoleculeChainsSequence LengthOrganismDetails
Glucocorticoid receptor 2
A, B
249Homo sapiensMutation(s): 0 
Protein Feature View
  • Reference Sequence
Small Molecules
Ligands 1 Unique
IDChainsName / Formula / InChI Key2D Diagram3D Interactions
DEX
Query on DEX

Download CCD File 
A, B
DEXAMETHASONE
C22 H29 F O5
UREBDLICKHMUKA-CXSFZGCWSA-N
 Ligand Interaction
Experimental Data & Validation

Experimental Data

  • Method: X-RAY DIFFRACTION
  • Resolution: 2.50 Å
  • R-Value Free: 0.255 
  • R-Value Work: 0.196 
  • R-Value Observed: 0.199 
  • Space Group: P 61
Unit Cell:
Length ( Å )Angle ( ˚ )
a = 104.218α = 90
b = 104.218β = 90
c = 144.166γ = 120
Software Package:
Software NamePurpose
SERGUIdata collection
PHASERphasing
REFMACrefinement
HKL-2000data reduction
HKL-2000data scaling

Structure Validation

View Full Validation Report



Entry History 

Deposition Data

  • Deposited Date: 2009-03-16 
  • Released Date: 2009-09-22 
  • Deposition Author(s): Ortlund, E.A.

Revision History 

  • Version 1.0: 2009-09-22
    Type: Initial release
  • Version 1.1: 2011-07-13
    Changes: Version format compliance