Structural basis for the slow photocycle and late proton release in Acetabularia rhodopsin I from the marine plant Acetabularia acetabulumFuruse, M., Tamogami, J., Hosaka, T., Kikukawa, T., Shinya, N., Hato, M., Ohsawa, N., Kim, S.Y., Jung, K.H., Demura, M., Miyauchi, S., Kamo, N., Shimono, K., Kimura-Someya, T., Yokoyama, S., Shirouzu, M.
(2015) Acta Crystallogr.,Sect.D 71: 2203-2216
- PubMed: 26527138
- DOI: 10.1107/S1399004715015722
- Primary Citation of Related Structures:
- PubMed Abstract:
Although many crystal structures of microbial rhodopsins have been solved, those with sufficient resolution to identify the functional water molecules are very limited. In this study, the Acetabularia rhodopsin I (ARI) protein derived from the marine ...
Although many crystal structures of microbial rhodopsins have been solved, those with sufficient resolution to identify the functional water molecules are very limited. In this study, the Acetabularia rhodopsin I (ARI) protein derived from the marine alga A. acetabulum was synthesized on a large scale by the Escherichia coli cell-free membrane-protein production method, and crystal structures of ARI were determined at the second highest (1.52-1.80 Å) resolution for a microbial rhodopsin, following bacteriorhodopsin (BR). Examinations of the photochemical properties of ARI revealed that the photocycle of ARI is slower than that of BR and that its proton-transfer reactions are different from those of BR. In the present structures, a large cavity containing numerous water molecules exists on the extracellular side of ARI, explaining the relatively low pKa of Glu206(ARI), which cannot function as an initial proton-releasing residue at any pH. An interhelical hydrogen bond exists between Leu97(ARI) and Tyr221(ARI) on the cytoplasmic side, which facilitates the slow photocycle and regulates the pKa of Asp100(ARI), a potential proton donor to the Schiff base, in the dark state.
Faculty of Advanced Life Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan.,RIKEN Systems and Structural Biology Center, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan.,College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Matsuyama University, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8578, Japan.,Department of Life Science and Institute of Biological Interfaces, Sogang University, Seoul 121-742, Republic of Korea.